Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Words Expose the Soul At the point when I was a first year recruit at Bemidji State I lived in the residences. My flat mates name was Chad. He had a sweetheart who go to Moorhead State. Her name was Jodi. I didn't get an opportunity to meet Jodi until late in the year, around February. However, up until that time, I had been able to know her well indeed. The thing was that since they lived so far separated they didn't call each other until late around evening time. More often than not, when she called, Chad wasn't there. It was entirely unexpected, Jodi's flat mate was a young lady that I graduated with. This prompted numerous discussions, numerous that over a thirty minutes. I had seen photos of her so I recognized what she resembled, yet I was beginning to get an image of what she resembled as an individual. I did this through perception of her manner of speaking in certain circumstance, word use, and generally demeanor. By demeanor I mean was she cheerful, dismal, or befuddled when all is said in done. The entirety of this gave me a quite smart thought with respect to what sort of individual she was. One day in February I had the chance to discover precisely what she like. She stayed with Chad, and remain the night. This allowed us to talk eye to eye. It was entertaining, in light of the fact that she was actually similar to I figured she would be. I could hardly imagine how I had gotten the entirety of this data about her equitable by tuning in to the way that she talked. Some may state that a circumstance like this and one in where you read something are entirely unexpected, yet I accept that they are fundamentally the same as. Perusing a bit of composing by an individual that you don't actually know is equivalent to having a discussion with an individual via phone that you have never met. In the two cases you attempt to become acquainted with the individual better by the words that they use. The methods for correspondence has no effect. One of the principle distinction between the perusing and tuning in, however, is that when you tune in to an individual you can recognize affectations and tones that an individual uses while talking. At the point when you read you need to depend on the writer to furnish you with the voice of the characters or perhaps himself.
Posted by Alina Loper at 1:37 PM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Question: Talk about the Case Study Nursingfor Growth and Developmental Theories. Answer: Different development and formative speculations can concentrate on the human turn of events. The formative speculations primarily center around the development of the human all through the life expectancy. It needs to make reference to that in the consideration procedure, the patient ought to be remembered for the treatment strategy. As Anne is an offspring of 10 years of age, she has to think about the clinical treatment. As she is a youngster, she may not comprehend the clinical terms. The specialists need to utilize basic language to show Anne her clinical issue. Notwithstanding, this can make dread in Anne. Accordingly, the advancement of her wellbeing status may break down. In this manner, relatives and the specialist should be cautious before sharing the worry. Snow et al. (2016) referenced that it is important to include a kid in the dynamic as this can assist them with developing the new abilities and can make association with network. In addition, the kids can communicate t heir issues in preferable manner over others can. This will assist the specialist with taking any choice in regards to treatment. In any case, it is important to include the youngsters from the earliest starting point of the conversation that will assist her with gaining information. This information can help the kid being developed of the psychological force. Be that as it may, before including the kid in the dynamic, an appropriate arrangement ought to be made. The conversation strategy ought to be intriguing that will rouse the kid to be included (Montravers et al., 2016). The inspiration can assist Anne with overcoming her issues and recover soon. As Anne is experiencing the privilege iliac fossa torment and specialist suspected about the an infected appendix, she has the option to think about the ailment. She should think about the pathophysiology of the gangrenous punctured addendum with the peritonitis. The contribution of Anne can impact the mindful medical attendants to giv e the correct mindful. The development and formative expected achievements have the effect on the mindful framework. The medical caretaker needs to evaluate the issues of Anne and make a standard development diagram. This will assist the medical caretaker with monitoring the development and advancement of Anne. In any case, the youngster ought not be compelled to accomplish the achievements than the time (Daskalakis, Juhlin Phlman, 2014). As Anne is as of now 10 years of age, she will be teenagers in two years. In this manner, she may require uncommon consideration in such condition. The patient must be energized for the age suitable self-care. The usage of the development and improvement, it tends to be proposed that for the advancement of the patient, noteworthy intercessions are vital. In the advancement of the patient, nurture assumes the huge job as she is apportioned for 24 hours in the minding of the patient (Kirby et al., 2015). For the situation, Anne has some contamination and potential inconveni ences, for which she needed to remain in the clinic for progressively 10 days. The medical caretaker dealt with her and gave IV anti-microbials for the torment the board. She was conceded due the privilege iliac fossa torment. Be that as it may, the specialist suspected about the an infected appendix and proposed for the appendectomy. In such condition, Anne needs a lot of care to recover soon. The issues of Anne can increment with the time and age. In this manner, the medical attendant should be cautious during giving the consideration. After the medical procedure, the patient needs to remain in the emergency clinic in any event for 4 days if any basic condition emerges (Hansson et al., 2014). In any case, Anne needed to remain for 10 days because of complex circumstance. In such condition, the contamination should be forestalled from the outset and the patient need escalated care. References Daskalakis, K., Juhlin, C., Phlman, L. (2014). The utilization of pre-or postoperative anti-microbials in medical procedure for an infected appendix: a methodical review.Scandinavian Journal of Surgery,103(1), 14-20. Hansson, J., Khorram-Manesh, An., Alwindawe, A., Lundholm, K. (2014). A model to choose patients who may profit by anti-toxin treatment as the main line treatment of intense a ruptured appendix at high probability.Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery,18(5), 961-967. Kirby, A., Hobson, R. P., Burke, D., Cleveland, V., Ford, G., West, R. M. (2015). Appendicectomy for suspected simple a ruptured appendix is related with less inconveniences than moderate anti-infection the executives: a meta-investigation of post-mediation complications.Journal of Infection,70(2), 105-110. Montravers, P., Blot, S., Dimopoulos, G., Eckmann, C., Eggimann, P., Guirao, X., ... De Waele, J. (2016). Helpful administration of peritonitis: a thorough guide for intensivists.Intensive consideration medicine,42(8), 1234-1247. Day off. F., Vannahme, M., Kettley, L., Pullyblank, A. (2016). Burst hepatic conduit aneurysm hastened by gangrenous punctured a ruptured appendix: a case report.Journal of careful case reports,2016(5).
Posted by Alina Loper at 8:22 AM
Thursday, August 20, 2020
Online Education - yes or no Online Education Do You Have What It Takes? HomeâºEducation PostsâºOnline Education Do You Have What It Takes? Education PostsOnline education is a highly debated topic. Studying online offers vast versatility in the choice of interests and general subjects of study. It offers a liberal schedule, an enormous pool of resources for research and study, valuable support from online communities and endless up-do-date info on any subject. The Internet is full of dictionaries, encyclopedias, libraries, discussion forums and complete courses, which are at oneâs finger tips. The only thing you need in order to use it is a computer and access to the Internet. With todayâs advanced and affordable technology that will not be hard. However, the single most important thing an online student must know is the following: without dedication and desire to learn and teach oneself studying online is close to useless. Many students think that they will be able to just forget about formal educatio n due to easy access to the Internet. Yet, it takes a lot of will power and commitment to excellence to be able to teach oneself. The liberty online education offers is often misused. Without someone to manage time and oversee a studentsâ progress, they tend to slack, to waste time, or to get distracted by other things they come by when studying. If students do not set goals for themselves, keep track of their progress and constantly assess their knowledge, they will soon lose the momentum, and the time they spend will be wasted in vain. However, if you feel some details of your education need special attention, and you wish you can get help in upping your grades, you can approach such reputable online writing service provider as qualitycustomessays.com. Online education is not for everyone. It is rather difficult, and takes a lot of effort to utilize and manage time with utmost efficiency. If you think you have what it takes â" the desire and commitment to excellence and a stron g will â" it just might be for you. Many websites, offer complete online learning packages, complete with study groups, teachers, assignments and regular assessment, media content and much more. Do you have what it takes?
Posted by Alina Loper at 5:10 AM
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3180 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Medicine Essay Type Essay any type Did you like this example? Introduction The oral route is still the most desired route for the administration of medicinal products1 due to the ease and lack of inconvenience associated with this administration route, in comparison to others such as the pulmonary route or the more invasive intravenous route. The pharmaceutical industry has developed considerably over the past 40 years with respect to the rate at which new chemical entities are being discovered. This increased rate is primarily due to the invention of high throughput screening, but there is no correlation between the rate of synthesis of these novel compounds and the release of new drugs on the market due to the high failure rate during the development process1. In order to minimise cost and resources associated with this loss, effective screening methods for both pharmacological action and bioavailability have to be used. The most important process that influences bioavailability of the drug is absorption and the necessity of creating and us ing suitable models that can predict the in vivo absorption profile of a drug is absolutely critical in achieving the desired reduction in cost associated with the pharmaceutical development process. There are two primary phases of absorption for orally administered drugs; the first is dissolution of the drug in the aqueous media present at the site or sites of absorption1 the second is permeation of the drug particles in solution through predominantly the small intestinal membrane into the hepatic portal vein1. The main factors affecting dissolution of a drug in the gastrointestinal (GI) system are the pH of the environment, volume of dissolution media and the presence of food by either encouraging or delaying the passage of the dosage form into the small intestine where many drugs are absorbed. Permutation of the drug through the small intestinal membrane is influenced by several variables. The presence of influx and efflux pumps on the apical surface is a main cons ideration2. There are three main routes of absorption that drugs can take; transcellular absorption through the cells, paracellular absorption by passing thorough the tight junctions between cells or by using influx transporters present on the apical surface3. Efflux transporters are also present which act to eject the drug molecule out of the cell and limit bioavailability1. All of these processes and scenarios need to be considered in developing an in vitro model to accurately predict gastrointestinal drug absorption. The extent to which a particular model represents the results seen in vivo can be conveyed through a mathematical relationship known as the in vitro- in vivo correlation (IVIVC)2,4. The predictive power of this correlation ultimately depends upon the capacity of the in vitro method used to simulate and reflect what occurred in vivo. The fact that different models are able to do this to different degrees has been appreciated as different levels of IVIVC have been defined; levels A, B, C, multiple C and D with A being the highest level5. There are many factors to consider and appreciate when looking at IVIVC made from drugs absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, as models are either based on the dissolution of the drug within the GI media at the absorption site or permeability of the drug across the intestinal membrane. This review primarily considers models used to simulate and predict drug permeability, with a discussion of the ability of each technique to reflect and predict the in vivo environment and response; which would allow a representative IVIVC to be formed. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Drug Absorbed Administration" essay for you Create order In silico permeability models These models are computer programs that aim to predict the absorption and permeability of a drug. One review6 gave a very good summary of the programming process and highlighted the specifications against which the physicochemical properties of drugs are judged. An advantage of using such a model is that a high turnover of compounds can be tested within a short period of time6, a property that makes it very practical in industry. But in terms of developing an IVIVC, this model has limited use7. One major argument against the use of this model highlighted by another review 1 is that absorption predictions are based only on the physicochemical properties of the drug. This assumption is false as there are other factors to consider such as drug Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" membrane interactions through active transporters and efflux pumps1 Parallel Artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) This technique is based on the formation of an artificial membrane by using a hydrophobic filter material as support upon which lecithin and organic solvents are placed upon to produce an artificial lipid1. One recent review8 greatly criticised the use of this technique in the drug discovery process. It was stated that there was no real benefit in using this technique over the cell culture methods such as caco-2 and MKCD cell lines because it was just as time consuming with less informative data being obtained8. One of the main advantages of using this technique was that it was less labour intensive and quicker to do9, but this was a main focus of the argument against use of the technique by this review. Due to the different manipulations such as testing in various pH that need to be carried out, the process was deemed just as labour intensive as the caco-2 or Ussing chamber method. An attempt to debate against the points raised by this review was done by another9 whi ch highlighted the ability to use this technique to obtain various information such as the partition coefficient and apparent permeability (Papp) of a drug. Nevertheless, both reviews failed to specifically highlight the strengths or weaknesses of the technique in creating IVIVC. It appeared that the capacity of this technique to do so is limited as there is a gross underestimation of active transport of hydrophilic compounds with low molecular weights 1. Ussing Chambers This cell technique involves the isolation of intestinal membrane and cutting the tissue into strips. These strips are clamped onto a suitable clamping device to produce a flat sheet between two chambers, the donor and receiver chamber1. The measurement is taken as the amount of drug that appears in the receiver chamber1. To monitor the viability of the intestinal tissue, electrical resistance is measured by placing a current across the membrane1. Only few studies have used this technique to reflect its capability but this has only been used to show a level D IVIVC, where drug candidates during the development process are placed in rank order. One such study10 presented this technique as being equally capable of ranking drug candidates when compared to caco-2 cells and the in situ technique of a perfused jejunum loop. One article11 opposes the use of this technique and presents the counter argument to the method being used to create such a correlation. The paper identif ied the ability of this model to be biologically representative but clearly stated that the technique is not robust enough to incorporate as a method which is routinely used in early development, due to the complexity associated with setting up the instrument. This is a good observation and highlights an impracticality of the method. Caco-2 cell lines and separated clones The method that has been supported in recent studies is the Caco-2-cell culture model that has been shown to effectively mimic intestinal absorption. These cells are human colon adenocarcinoma cells that undergo proliferation when in culture1 which are grown on small porous membranes that fit in the wells of welled plates. The sample of the drug being tested is placed on top of the membrane with the amount of drug that passes through being calculated and the Papp is determined. Arguments in favour of this method state that the ability of this model to reflect in vivo conditions is very good as not only can transcellular and paracellular diffusion occur, both influx and efflux transporters are present, allowing active transport processes to be considered1,12. Such transport systems are those for sugars, bile acids, the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein11 and the more recently discovered multiple drug resistance protein (MDRP)11. This view is supported by many whom consid er this model to be very representative of the prediction of intestinal absorption. A study by Yee13 analysed 36 drugs and observed the correlation between the apparent absorption (Papp) obtained from the cells and the percentage absorbed determined from in vivo testing. A correlation coefficient of 0.90 between percentage absorbed in vitro and in vivo was obtained, showing that the technique is capable of reliably predicting in vivo results13. Another study14 confirmed the predictive ability of this model using 20 compounds and also established a correlation coefficient of 0.92 between Papp and the percentage of dose absorbed To further support the use of caco-2 cells, some studies10,11 have highlighted the ability of this method to be used in early stages of development in order to produce level D IVIVC where drug candidates are placed in rank order. But despite all these positive aspects some13,15-16 remain critical of this technique because of an associated low lev el of reproducibility with gross variability in results from different labs15. This has been attribute to differing culture conditions within each lab13,16. For example one study highlighted the importance of culture nutrients and duration of cell feeding as more L-methyldopa was absorbed as the feeding time increased13. Another important limitation of the model that has been recognised is that as the number of cells within a cell line increases, the Trans epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), mannitol flux and cell growth changes1. The TEER is a validation tool used to quantitatively reflect the integrity of the monolayer as the viability of this cell culture diminishes17. The cell line is unable to express mucus17 which has been shown to act as a barrier to drug permutation in retarding drug contact with the apical membrane of the small intestine and a fixed pH is used in the model17. This is not reflective of in vivo as the mucus layer has been shown to retard per mutation and the pH of the small intestine changes. A strong counter argument against the use of caco-2 cells is that the predictive power of the method differs depending upon the main absorption route that the drug uses. Two studies14,15 have indicated variability in the Papp for mannitol, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 and fluorescein that have low paracellular permeability in various batches of caco-2 cells from different origins. Another study17 clearly showed that caco-2 cells underestimated the absorption of amoxicillin Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" a passively absorbed drug and was not able to truly model the absorption of drugs that are absorbed using a carrier-mediated process due to the saturation or under-expression of these influx carriers and the over-expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein. This limitation of the caco-2 cell line is where the calu-2 cell line proves to be superior. This is a sub-clone of the caco-2 cell line that is isolated at a late pass age number and has been shown to express different levels of sucrase isomaltase and glucose transporters17. Arguments in favour of this model claim that it is more representative of the in vivo situation17 as it expresses levels of sucrase isomaltase similar to that seen in the human jejunum17. UDP-transglucoronyltransferase, an enzyme involved in conjugation metabolic reaction is also seen at a level that is more representative of that in vivo and also an IVIVC has been formed using the in-vitro data obtained from this model17. Another sub-clone of the caco-2 cell line is the HT29-18-C1. A study18 used this cell line and the information obtained was used to calculate a permeability coefficient (PC) for a particular compound. A relationship between the percentage absorbed and the PC was formed much in the same manner as that created using Papp and was shown to be a good model to use in the early development process. Although this method possesses a significant flaw whic h is that the tight junctions established in this cell line were not as tight as those seen in vivo 18, therefore allowing passive diffusion to occur to a greater extent than would normally occur. This was shown in the same study18 where the Pc of mannitol was ten times less than that seen in caco-2 cells, which is not reflective of in vivo conditions. Madlin Derby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells The progressive changes in TEER seen in caco-2 cells have led to the use of Madlin Derby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells as a model to predict intestinal absorption14. These are differentiated epithelial cells that form tight junctions when cultured in semi-permeable membranes14 that also possess transporters, but not as many as seen in the caco-2 cell line14. One study19 highlighted both opposing arguments and those in favour of the technique by comparing the ability of the model with not only in vivo data but also with the caco-2 cell line. The predictive power of the model was similar to that of the caco-2 cells for passively absorbed compounds that showed good permeability19. For those that were poorly permeable or were actively transported, the model was unable to accurately present the degree of absorption; for the latter this is due to the minimal transporters expressed by the MDCK cells19, resulting in a poor IVIVC 2/4/A1 cell line This cell line which originated from fetal rat intestine was reported to mimic the permeability of the small intestine to drugs absorbed via the paracellular route to a greater extent than the caco-2 cell line1. One paper20 clearly advocates the use of this cell line because of this point as the tight junctions seen are more representative with the extent of passive absorption being similar to that in vivo. In this study this cell line was transformed in order to improve viability and a sigmoid relationship between fraction of drug absorbed in vivo and permeability coefficient obtained in vitro was obtained. The predominant argument against the use of this model also presented by the same study20, was that the shape properties of the cell line were not similar to that of the small intestine. The cells are cuboidal as oppose to columnar and there was a lower number of villi present on the apical surface. This limits the models capability of reflecting transcellular or car rier mediated absorption, which are major routes for many drugs which negatively impacts the IVIVC created. Conclusion and the Future In examining the arguments for and against the different cell culture techniques, the caco-2 cell line appears to be the most reflective of in vivo absorption. This is because the cell line can express transporters, allow all routes of absorption, has an associated low operating cost, high reliability and throughput capacity. All these advantages make it a very practical and useful model to routinely use in industry. Nevertheless, there is still room for improvement as the in vivo environment is not completely shown with this cell line. One significant aspect omitted is the dissolution of the drug and the impact that this process has on amount of the dose of drug available for permutation. Therefore the next step in producing a completely reflective model that can be used to form a good IVIVC is the combination of methods to take into account the many aspects influencing bioavailability1 with an ultimate goal of creating an in vitro gastrointestinal system model. Incorp oration of a modified caco-2 cell line that has been co-cultured with other cells such as MDCK cells with an artificial digestive system model such as the TIM-1 model is an example of such steps that can be investigated into attaining the ultimate goal. Within the TIM-1 model there is still room for improvement but it does provide a foundation to build and develop upon. The incorporation of the newly created PBL dynamic gastric model to replace the gastric compartment of the TIM-1 would be a combination that would shed more insight into actual food effects on drug absorption and permutation. Developments similar to this would eventually lead to the creation of a very reliable and reflective in vitro model. Bibliography (1) Balimane PV, Chong S, Morrison RA. Current methodologies used for evaluation of intestinal permeability and absorption. J.Pharmacol.Toxicol.Methods 2000;44(1):301-312. (2) Emami J. In vitro In vivo relationships: Concepts, regulatory perspectives, advances and attempts. J.Pharm.Pharm.Sci. 2006 27 Feb;9(1):82-100. (3) Hu M, Borchardt RT. Mechanism of L-alpha-methyldopa transport through a monolayer of polarized human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Pharm.Res. 1990;7(12):1313-1319. (4) Emami J. In vitro-in vivo correlation: From theory to applications. J.Pharm.Pharm.Sci. 2006 16 Jun;9(2):31-51. (5) Yu LX, Amidon GL, Polli JE, Zhao H, Mehta MU, Conner DP, et al. Biopharmaceutics classification system: The scientific basis for biowaiver extensions. Pharm.Res. 2002;19(7):921-925. (6) Bergstrom CAS. In silico predictions of drug solubility and permeability: Two rate-limiting barriers to oral drug absorption. Basic Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2005 Mar;96(3):156-1 61. (7) Barr WH, Riegelman S. Intestinal drug absorption and metabolism. I. Comparison of methods and models to study physiological factors of in vitro and in vivo intestinal absorption. J.Pharm.Sci. 1970;59(Feb):154-163. (8) Galinis-Luciani D, Nguyen L, Yazdanian M. Is PAMPA a useful tool for discovery?. J.Pharm.Sci. 2007 Nov;96(11):2886-2892. (9) Avdeef A, Bendels S, Di L, Faller B, Kansy M, Sugano K, et al. PAMPA Critical factors for better predictions of absorption. J.Pharm.Sci. 2007 Nov;96(11):2893-2909. (10) Boisset M, Botham RP, Haegele KD, Lenfant B, Pachot JI. Absorption of angiotensin II antagonists in Ussing chambers, Caco-2, perfused jejunum loop and in vivo:: Importance of drug ionisation in the in vitro prediction of in vivo absorption. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2000 5;10(3):215-224. (11) Fearn RA, Hirst BH. Predicting oral drug absorption and hepatobiliary clearance: Human intestinal and hepatic in vitro cell models. Environ.Tox icol.Pharmacol. 2006 Feb;21(2 SPEC. ISS):168-178. (12) Stewart BH, Chan OH, Lu RH, Reyner EL, Schmid HL, Hamilton HW, et al. Comparison of Intestinal Permeabilities Determined in Multiple in Vitro and in Situ Models: Relationship to Absorption in Humans. Pharm.Res. 1995 May;12(5):693-699. (13) Yee S. In vitro permeability across Caco-2 cells (colonic) can predict in vivo (small intestinal) absorption in man Fact or myth. Pharm.Res. 1997;14(6):763-766. (14) Volpe DA. Variability in Caco-2 and MDCK cell-based intestinal permeability assays. J.Pharm.Sci. 2008 Feb;97(2):712-725. (15) Walter E, Kissel T. Heterogeneity in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 leads to differences in transepithelial transport. Eur.J.Pharm.Sci. 1995;3(4):215-230. (16) Tsuji A, Takanaga H, Tamai I, Terasaki T. Transcellular transport of benzoic acid across Caco-2 cells by a pH-dependent and carrier-mediated transport mechanism. Pharm.Res. 1994;11(1):30-37. (17) Gres M, Julian B, Bourri e M, Meunier V, Roques C, Berger M, et al. Correlation Between Oral Drug Absorption in Humans, and Apparent Drug Permeability in TC-7 Cells, A Human Epithelial Intestinal Cell Line: Comparison with the Parental Caco-2 Cell Line. Pharm.Res. 1998 May;15(5):726-733. (18) Wils P, Warnery A, Phung-Ba V, Scherman D. Differentiated intestinal epithelial cell lines as in vitro models for predicting the intestinal absorption of drugs. Cell Biol.Toxicol. 1994 Dec;10(5-6):393-397. (19) Irvine JD, Takahashi L, Lockhart K, Cheong J, Tolan JW, Selick HE, et al. MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells: A tool for membrane permeability screening. J.Pharm.Sci. 1999 Jan;88(1):28-33. (20) Tavelin S, Milovic V, Ocklind G, Olsson S, Artursson P. A conditionally immortalized epithelial cell line for studies of intestinal drug transport. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1212-1221.
Posted by Alina Loper at 12:57 PM
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Fig. 38. Diana transpires in the Bible as being worshipped by Ã¢â¬Å"All of Asia and the world.Ã¢â¬ This statue of the goddess Diana/Artemis occurs being adorned with numerous breasts and on the surface of the middle to lower part of this statue there occurs carvings of goats. F or the ancients, sex existed as a religion that became fueled by lust, occurring everywhere, and at anytime. Though SatanÃ¢â¬â¢s numerous advocates, the goddesses helped elevate destruction to damage GodÃ¢â¬â¢s sacred sexual gift persistently. Ultimately, this sexual disgrace thrived nonstop; just as it flourishes today, existing just as much of a religion of lust, as in ancient times. The Manipulation of Sexual Power As mentioned in Part II, the goddesses laid claim to sexual pleasure from the earliest recorded time, successfully exploiting sex to rule societies. Appallingly, ancient women had a terrible set-up from the start concerning their sexual beings, for it appears from the earliest of time womenÃ¢â¬â¢s creative power existed as being controlled and manipulated as a power belonging to others Ã¢â¬â outside of her Ã¢â¬â whether the control evolved from the priests or the regional god or goddess. Specifically, instead of women being praised for the ability to create life, in its place evolved praises for the phallus - the penis occurred glorified and worshipped in the majority of societies. It prevailed with such power; a new king would eat the appendage of his predecessor to absorb his sacred authority.
Posted by Alina Loper at 6:44 PM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In 1994, Merck Co., Inc. hired Ray Gilmore as CEO to help survive the turmoil of the pharmaceutical industry. We will write a custom essay sample on The Structural Frame for Merck Co., Inc. or any similar topic only for you Order Now Gilmore followed a structural frame capitalize on the strong technical tradition of Merck Co., Inc. who attained a powerful scientific engine. While Vagelos acted as CEO, Merck maintained a strong structure frame through the domination of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s senior Research and Development (RD) scientists with strong support from company CEO. When Gilmartin became MerckÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO, he replaced the two executive vice president positions with a larger Management Committee (MC). MC was directed to improve the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business processes to build cross-functional skills rather than restructure company organization. Gilmartin expressed his structural frame through the redefinition of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ roles and relations to rid the company of its functional and divisional barriers. GilmartinÃ¢â¬â¢s structural face could also be seen in his creation of Worldwide Business Strategy Teams (WBSTs) to expand individual managersÃ¢â¬â¢ thinking, planning and actions beyond existing functional areas. The teams were composed of members from all different functional divisions of the company. GilmartinÃ¢â¬â¢s structural frame activities improved MerckÃ¢â¬â¢s planning and resource allocation through cross-functional business processes. The Human Resource Frame for Merck Co., Inc.: The human resource frame is evident in Merck tradition of high ethical standards since many of the company employees had a higher purpose to save lives. The company CEO proclaimed Ã¢â¬Å"We try never to forget that medicine is for the people. It is not the profits. The profits follow, and if we have remembered that, they never failed to appear.Ã¢â¬  The company also maintained a cultural image in parallel with its academic image. Company scientists and clinicians were addressed as Ã¢â¬Å"Doctor.Ã¢â¬ Gilmartin created his symbolic frame by interviewing employees across the company about their views on major issues facing Merck. He cleared the confusion and ambiguity concerning the lack of strategic thinking and clear vision. Ã He further enhanced employee communication by the initiation of a comprehensive internal review of the issues facing the company by interviewing 800 employees across MerckÃ¢â¬â¢s functional areas. Gilmartin activities of human resource created a very positive view of MerckÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy among company employees. One manager said Ã¢â¬Å"We have a clear direction now.Ã¢â¬ Employees made much progress on management and leadership development. Stakeholders of Vioxx: A number of stakeholders were involved in the Vioxx medicine recalling incident of Merck Co., Inc. in 2004. Internal stakeholders were Merck Co., Inc. Company employees and Merck Co., Inc. company shareholders. External stakeholders were the patients who took the medicine, and the United States Health Department. Negative Impact of the recall of the Vioxx drug to Stockholders: The Merck Co., Inc. stock was considered dead money in 2004 in expectation to the number of lawsuits filed against the company over safety concerns of the drug. If Merck Co., Inc. loses the cases, it faces a potentially huge cost from the reimbursements to patients as well as payments for ongoing medical monitoring of people who took Vioxx. The recalling of Vioxx caused an annual decrease income of $2.5 billion. Following the of the announcement of the recall, investors dumped Merck Co., Inc. shares causing a 30% decrease to reach the lowest closing price in more than eight years. The recall would cut the $1.52 annual dividend and shave at least 50 cents a share, or 16%, off the $3.14 share analysts expected the company to earn in 2004. Recommendation to Mitigate the Recall of Vioxx: Merck Co., Inc. should seek the production and marketing of innovative products to increase its sales in response to the decrease caused by the recall of Vioxx. In an attempt to improve its public image and ethical stance, Merck Co., Inc. should relieve some of its senior management who might have been responsible for production of Vioxx. The within punishment of its own top management would convince the public of the commitment to higher ethical standards.  George W. Merck, the son of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s U.S. founder quoted in Ã¢â¬Å"Merck Sharp Dohame, A brief history,Ã¢â¬ Merck Co., Inc,. 1992, p. 18. How to cite The Structural Frame for Merck Co., Inc., Essay examples
Posted by Alina Loper at 2:10 PM
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theVertical Integration for American Economic Review. Answer: Introduction: Vertical integration is a strategically implied process, which is usually adopted by a business organizations or companies for expanding their operations. This usually implies that the company or organization involves tries to own the various process itself without relying on the vendors for the job. This report discusses about the vertical integration processes in the Indian premier league (IPL). The type of vertical integration used in IPL is also discussed in the report. Discussion: The examples of a vertical integration strategy are when a manufacturing company or business organization wants to acquire their suppliers and vendors and wan to expand the business. This reduces the time required to ship the products to the external vendors and the time to ship the raw materials from suppliers. This also reduces the cost for operation in the company involved. Upward vertical integration: The upward vertical integration is done by a company who wants to buy their suppliers (Lee 2013). This reduces the time required for contracting and time for transportation of the raw materials. In the case of IPL, the franchisers are the suppliers here. The businesspersons are responsible for buying their intended team via a bidding process. The process involved allotting a special sum for buying the players for a team. In its day of commencing, Mumbai was the highest grossed franchisee owned. Downward Vertical integration: This type of integration is applied when the company involved wants to buy the vendors or their product suppliers to minimize the cost involved in contracting with them and the time required for transportation (Chang and Iseppi 2012). In case of IPL, the vendor is the broadcaster who is supposed to sell media rights. On the days of opening, IPL marketed with Sony Entertainment television for marketing which made a deal of 15million$. This helped the IPL to grow and get the fans all over the country. Conclusion: Thus, the report concludes that the vertical integration process done in IPL helped to get the required promotion as well as the intended brand value that it represents in the modern days. Referencing: Chang, T.F.M. and Iseppi, L., 2012. EU agro-food chain and vertical integration potentiality: a strategy for diversification?.Transition Studies Review,19(1), pp.107-130. Lee, R.S., 2013. Vertical integration and exclusivity in platform and two-sided markets.The American Economic Review,103(7), pp.2960-3000.
Posted by Alina Loper at 2:49 PM